Sunday, August 14, 2011

One-Child Policy Good for Chinese Girls?

From Yahoo News:
Tsinghua University freshman Mia Wang has confidence to spare.

Asked what her home city of Benxi in China's far northeastern tip is famous for, she flashes a cool smile and says: "Producing excellence. Like me."

A Communist Youth League member at one of China's top science universities, she boasts enviable skills in calligraphy, piano, flute and pingpong.

Such gifted young women are increasingly common in China's cities and make up the most educated generation of women in Chinese history. Never have so many been in college or graduate school, and never has their ratio to male students been more balanced.

To thank for this, experts say, is three decades of steady Chinese economic growth, heavy government spending on education and a third, surprising, factor: the one-child policy.

* * *

Since 1979, China's family planning rules have barred nearly all urban families from having a second child in a bid to stem population growth. With no male heir competing for resources, parents have spent more on their daughters' education and well-being, a groundbreaking shift after centuries of discrimination.

"They've basically gotten everything that used to only go to the boys," said Vanessa Fong, a Harvard University professor and expert on China's family planning policy.

* * *

Crediting the one-child policy with improving the lives of women is jarring, given its history and how it's harmed women in other ways. Facing pressure to stay under population quotas, overzealous family planning officials have resorted to forced sterilizations and late-term abortions, sometimes within weeks of delivery, although such practices are illegal.

The birth limits are also often criticized for encouraging sex-selective abortions in a son-favoring society. Chinese traditionally prefer boys because they carry on the family name and are considered better earners.

* * *

Wang's birth in the spring of 1992 triggered a family rift that persists to this day. She was a disappointment to her father's parents, who already had one granddaughter from their eldest son. They had hoped for a boy.

"Everyone around us had this attitude that boys were valuable, girls were less," Gao Mingxiang, Wang's paternal grandmother, said by way of explanation — but not apology.

Small and stooped, Gao perched on the edge of her farmhouse "kang," a heated brick platform that in northern Chinese homes serves as couch, bed and work area. She wore three sweaters, quilted pants and slippers.

Her granddaughter, tall and graceful and dressed in Ugg boots and a sparkly blue top, sat next to her listening, a sour expression on her face. She wasn't shy about showing her lingering bitterness or her eagerness to leave. She agreed to the visit to please her father but refused to stay overnight — despite a four-hour drive each way.

* * *

But Wang's mother, Zheng Hong, did not understand. She grew up 300 kilometers (185 miles) away in the steel-factory town of Benxi with two elder sisters and went to vocational college for manufacturing. She lowers her voice to a whisper as she recalls the sting of her in-law's rejection when her daughter was born.

"I sort of limited my contact with them after that," Zheng said. "I remember feeling very angry and wronged by them. I decided then that I was going to raise my daughter to be even more outstanding than the boys."

They named her Qihua, a pairing of the characters for chess and art — a constant reminder of her parents' hope that she be both clever and artistic.

* * *

While strides have been made in reaching gender parity in education, other inequalities remain. Women remain woefully underrepresented in government, have higher suicide rates than males, often face domestic violence and workplace discrimination and by law must retire at a younger age than men.

It remains to be seen whether the new generation of degree-wielding women can alter the balance outside the classroom.

Some, like Wang, are already changing perceptions about what women can achieve. When she dropped by her grandmother's house this spring, the local village chief came by to see her. She was a local celebrity: the first village descendent in memory to make it into Tsinghua University.

"Women today, they can go out and do anything," her grandmother said. "They can do big things."


Anonymous said...

I guess all the girls growing up in orphanages are not represented in this study. I kind of doubt they are going to college and mastering chess and the flute and piano. I suppose they are considered non-persons.

AsianInTexas said...

I am not sure, I am a middle age Chinese women grew up in communist China. I have been given all resources for education and opportunities, so as all my friends, I think Communist lifted the women's status more than one child policy. The thing is there exists big difference between cities and rural area. Girls and boys are given same expectations on their future career in cities, while in rural area where more demands on physical work and more traditional, people prefer boys. But in big cities, few people go abortion due to gender, many prefer girls. I guess the urbanization of the China in the last 30 years boost the "statistics" a lot.

Anonymous said...

What an assinine article. No mention of the hundreds of thousand baby girls aborted because of the one-child policy nor the many, many forced abortions performed by this barbaric government.

Wendy said...

There is no cut and dry answer--there have been very positive outcomes for women in China relating to Communism as well as the OCP--which benefited the people after a massive population explosion. However, there have obviously been issues as well relating to rural Chinese and old traditions needing a son and/or a child without differences or illness. That being said, infanticide did not birth itself with OCP, nor did male preference. Anyone who feels the OCP is only bad is talking out of their uninformed butt.

Michael Chiarello said...

Hello Everyone,
This is an interesting concept. China has the largest population of any country in the world. The one child per family rule makes sense, because they need to do whatever they can keep their population growth in check, and perhaps even reduce their overall head count. Thanks a lot.
Study Chinese In China